Copying beyond the amount stated in the guidelines listed below may be justified by
fair use after careful analysis, but seeking permission is always preferable.
Emergency copying to replace purchased copies which for any reason are not available
for an imminent performance provided purchased replacement copies shall be substituted
in due course.
For academic purposes other than performance, single or multiple copies of excerpts
of works may be made, provided that, the excerpts do not comprise a part of the whole
which would constitute a performable unit such as a section, movement or aria, but
in no case more than 10% of the whole work.
Printed copies, which have been purchased may be edited or simplified provided that
the fundamental character of the work is not distorted or the lyrics, if any, altered
or lyrics added if none exist.
A single copy of recordings of performances by students may be made for evaluation
or rehearsal purposes and may be retained by the educational institution or the individual
A single copy of a sound recording (such as a tape, disc or cassette) of copyrighted
music may be made from sound recordings owned by an educational institution or an
individual teacher for the purpose of constructing aural exercises or examinations
and may be retained by the educational institution or individual teacher. (This pertains
only to the copyright of the music itself and not to any copyright which may exist
in the sound recording.)
Copying to create or replace or substitute for anthologies, compilations or collective
Copying of or from works intended to be consumable in the course of study or of teaching
such as workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and answer sheets and like material.
Copying for the purpose of performance, except as allowed above.
Copying for the purpose of substituting for the purchase of music, except as allowed
Copying without inclusion of the copyright notice which appears on the printed copy.